Melasmahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melasma
Melasma is a tan or dark skin discoloration of face. Melasma is thought to be caused by sun exposure, genetic predisposition, hormone changes, and skin irritation. Although it can affect anyone, it is particularly common in women, especially pregnant women and those who are taking contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy medications.

Melasma cannot be resolved with laser treatment for a certain period of time, as it is a disease in which pigment is continuously produced. Tranxenemic acid helps to improve to reduce the pigmentation.

Treatment
In some countries (e.g. Japan, Korea), oral tranexamic acid is available over the counter and is effective. The melasma cream with tranexamic acid and azelaic acid may be partially helpful.
Hydroquinone may be used topically for the treatment of hyperpigmentation, but the FDA halted the OTC products containing hydroquinone as of 2020.
#Tranexamic acid [TRANSINO]

#Laser toning technique (low fluence QS1064 laser)
#Triluma
  • It is a common condition observed in Asian women in their early 40s. The circled lesion in the photo is closer to lentigo rather than melasma.