Acne occurs from dead skin cells and oil from the skin clog hair follicles. Typical features of the condition include blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, and oily skin. It primarily affects skin with a relatively high number of oil glands, including the face, upper part of the chest, and back. Acne commonly occurs in adolescence and affects an estimated 80–90% of teenagers in the Western world. Some rural societies report lower rates of acne than industrialized ones.

In both sexes, hormones called androgens appear to be part of the underlying mechanism, by causing increased production of sebum. Another common factor is the excessive growth of the bacterium Cutibacterium acnes, which is present on the skin.

Treatments applied directly to the affected skin, such as azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and salicylic acid, are commonly used. Antibiotics and retinoids are available in formulations that are applied to the skin and taken by mouth for the treatment of acne. However, resistance to antibiotics may develop as a result of antibiotic therapy. Several types of birth control pills may help prevent acne in women. Early and aggressive treatment of acne using isotretinoin may be helpful to decrease the long-term complication on individuals.

Adapalene gel can be used widely because it suppresses the secretion of sebum and has the effect of suppressing the recurrence of acne. Adapalene gel can irritate the skin if too much is applied initially. Benzoyl peroxide and azelaic acid, on the other hand, can be used on inflammatory acne sites because they help with inflammation. In general, long-term treatment of 1 month or more is required to see an effect.

#Benzoyl peroxide [OXY-10]
#Adapalene gel [Differin]
#Tretinoin cream

#Topical clindamycin
#Comedone extraction
  • Acne in the torso area. The upper part of the torso and back are common areas of acne.
  • Typical cheek acne.
  • Acne can occur on the back. If acne suddenly occurs widely on the back, drug eruption may be considered.
  • Typical forehead acne. Acne in adolescence tends to start with the forehead.
  • In the center of the picture, a white, non-inflammatory comedone is observed.